Python cho hệ thống



  • The OS module in Python provides a way of using operating system dependent
    functionality.

    The functions that the OS module provides allows you to interface with the
    underlying operating system that Python is running on. (Windows, Mac or
    Linux.

    You can find important information about your location or about the process.

    Before we start, make sure that you have imported the OS module "import os"

    OS Functions explained

    os.system()	# Executing a shell command
    
    os.stat()	# Get the status of a file
    
    os.environ()    # Get the users environment
    
    os.chdir()   	# Move focus to a different directory
    
    os.getcwd()    	# Returns the current working directory
    
    os.getgid()    	# Return the real group id of the current process
    
    os.getuid()    	# Return the current process’s user id
    
    os.getpid()     # Returns the real process ID of the current process
    
    os.getlogin()   # Return the name of the user logged
    
    os.access()   	# Check read permissions
    
    os.chmod()    	# Change the mode of path to the numeric mode
    
    os.chown()   	# Change the owner and group id
    
    os.umask(mask)  # Set the current numeric umask
    
    os.getsize()   	# Get the size of a file
    
    os.environ()    # Get the users environment
    
    os.uname()   	# Return information about the current operating system
    
    os.chroot(path) # Change the root directory of the current process to path
    
    os.listdir(path)# List of the entries in the directory given by path
    
    os.getloadavg() # Show queue averaged over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes
    
    os.path.exists()# Check if a path exists
    
    os.walk()   	# Print out all directories, sub-directories and files
    
    os.mkdir(path)	# Create a directory named path with numeric mode mode
    
    os.remove(path)	# Remove (delete) the file path
    
    os.rmdir(path)  # Remove (delete) the directory path
    
    os.makedirs(path)# Recursive directory creation function
    
    os.removedirs(path) # Remove directories recursively
    
    os.rename(src, dst) # Rename the file or directory src to dst
    

    OS Functions Examples
    Let's get started to see how we can use these OS functions.
    Get current working directory with os.getcwd()

    print os.getcwd()
    

    Get the status of a file with os.stat()

    print "Getting the status of: ", os.stat('/usr/bin/python')
    

    Execute a shell command with os.system()

    os.system('ls -l')
    

    Return the current process id with os.getpid()

    print os.getpid()
    os.chmod(path, mode)
    

    Change the owner and group id of path to the numeric uid and gid with os.chown()
    os.chown(path, uid, gid)
    Processes in the system run queue averaged over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes
    print os.getloadavg()
    Check if a path exists with os.path.exists()
    if os.path.exists("file.txt"):
    Create a new directory named 'new_directory' if it doesn't exist already"
    os.path.exists("new_directory") or os.mkdir("new_directory")
    Check if the path is a directory or a file with os.path.isdir() & os.path.isfile()
    path = "/tmp"
    if os.path.isdir(path): print "That's a directory
    if os.path.isfile(path): print "That's a file"Create a directory with os.makedir()print os.mkdir('new_directory', 0666)Recursive create directories with os.makedirs()os.makedirs('dir_a/dir_b/dir_c')```
    Remove a directory with os.rmdir()

    print os.rmdir('directory')
    

    Recursively remove empty directories with os.rmdirs()

    os.removedirs('dir_a/dir_b/dir_c')
    

    Rename a file with os.rename()

    print os.rename('/path/to/old/file', '/path/to/new/file')
    

    Rename a file with shutil.move()

    print shutil.move('/path/to/old/file', '/path/to/new/file')
    
    

    Rename a file with shutil.copy()

    print shutil.copy('/path/to/old/file', '/path/to/new/file')
    

    Get the users home directory
    print os.path.expanduser('~')
    Check read permissions with os.access()
    path = '/tmp/file.txt'
    print os.access(path, os.R_OK)
    Get the users environment with os.environmen()
    home = os.environ['HOME']
    print home
    Move focus to a different directory with os.chdir()
    print os.chdir('/tmp')
    Print out all directories, sub-directories and files with os.walk()
    for root, dirs, files in os.walk("/tmp"):
    print root
    print dirs
    print files
    Get the last time a directory was accessed with os.path.getatime()
    os.path.getatime('/tmp')
    Get the last time a directory was modified with os.path.getmtime()
    os.path.getmtime('/tmp')
    Get the user ID with os.getuid()
    if os.getuid() != 0: print "you are not root"
    Get the group ID with os.getgid()
    print os.getgid()
    Return the name of the user logged in with os.getlogin()
    print os.getlogin()
    Returns a list of all files in a directory with os.listdir()
    for filename in os.listdir("/tmp"):
    print "This is inside /tmp", filename
    Get the size of a file with os.path.getsize()
    path.getsize("/tmp/file.txt")
    Using Python in your daily work is a good way to automate system administration
    tasks, when you feel that your shell scripts are to limited.


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